Mixed-initiative visual analytic systems steer analytical models and adapt views by making inferences from users’ behavioral patterns with the system. Because such systems rely on incorporating implicit and explicit user feedback, they are particularly susceptible to the injection and propagation of human biases. To ultimately guard against the potentially negative effects of systems biased by human users, we must first qualify what we mean by the term bias. Thus, in this paper we describe four different perspectives on human bias that are particularly relevant to visual analytics. We discuss the interplay of human and computer system biases, particularly their roles in mixed-initiative systems. Given that the term bias is used to describe several different concepts, our goal is to encourage mindful consideration of which perspective on bias researchers take in their work to facilitate a common language in research and development efforts going forward.


E. Wall, L. Blaha, C. Paul, K. Cook, and A. Endert, “Four Perspectives on Human Bias in Visual Analytics“, DECISIVe: Workshop on Dealing with Cognitive Biases in Visualizations (at InfoVis’17), 2017.